Maintenance KPIs: The Complete Guide

Two maintenance workers tracking maintenance KPIs on a CMMS system

Maintenance key performance indicators (KPIs) are beneficial for determining ways to increase production, limit costs, and extend the service life of machines. They are frequently used to measure improvement in facility operations and may indicate ways to improve facility efficiency. By understanding these maintenance KPIs, maintenance and facility managers gain valuable information on how recent updates and future changes impact facilities and machine longevity.

Today, we will discuss common maintenance KPIs, how to calculate them, the usefulness of each KPI to managers, and how LLumin’s computerized maintenance management system (CMMS+) software can help improve maintenance KPIs.

What Are Maintenance KPIs and Why Are They Important?

Maintenance KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) are metrics that help maintenance managers keep track of the effectiveness of their operations. Following common maintenance KPIs can help identify areas of improvement and help address problems early on. KPIs are much easier to track with CMMS software; attempting to track KPIs manually is time-consuming and can lead to human error. 

What Are the Most Common Maintenance KPIs?

Maintenance KPIs allow for a deep understanding of what is occurring throughout a facility by indicating inefficiencies and problems with production assets. As such, it is essential to understand common maintenance KPIs, how to calculate them, and how maintenance, reliability, and engineering managers utilize them. 

Common Maintenance KPIs

Percent Unscheduled Downtime

Percent unscheduled downtime is calculated by dividing total unscheduled downtime by total time.

Ex. Formula:
Total Unscheduled Downtime
Total Time
X 100%
Unscheduled Downtime Losses

Unscheduled downtime losses show how damaging unscheduled downtime is to the bottom line. 

Ex. Formula:

Total Unscheduled Downtime X Loss per Unit of Downtime

Percent Reactive Maintenance

Percent reactive maintenance is calculated by dividing the number of work hours spent on reactive maintenance by the total number of work hours.

Ex. Formula:
Number of Work Hours Spent on Reactive Maintenance
Total Number of Work Hours
X 100%
Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)

Mean-time-to-repair is an expression of how long it takes to repair an asset once it is down.

Ex. Formula:
Total Downtime Due to Repairs
Number of Repairs Completed
Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)

The MTBF metric is calculated by determining the average amount of time equipment operates without a breakdown.

MTBF =
Total Operational Time
Number of Failures
Mean Time to Failure (MTTF)

Similar to MTBF, the MTTF metric also focuses on machine issues. MTTF is the average time until equipment requires total replacement (also known as a non-repairable failure). 

MTTF =
Total Operational Time
Number of Failures
Mean Time to Acknowledge (MTTA)

MTTA is the average time from an alert of equipment failure to when work begins on that piece of equipment. 

MTTA =
Total Time to Acknowledge All Failures
Number of Failures
Mean Time to Recovery (MTTR)

MTTR is the average time it takes to be up and running after equipment failure. 

Ex. Formula:
Total Downtime due to Failures
Number of Failures

We will discuss each of these maintenance KPIs in-depth, how they contribute to the overall health of your operation, and how using a cutting-edge CMMS to track maintenance KPIs can drastically help you achieve maximum efficiency and your cost-cutting goals.

Percent Unscheduled Downtime

Percent unscheduled downtime is calculated by dividing total unscheduled downtime by total time. It indicates the amount of time devoted to unexpected issues with assets, such as diagnostics, understanding, and eventual repair or component replacement after a breakdown. Facility and engineering managers may use this KPI to show the success of their predictive and other proactive maintenance strategies. If the percentage of unscheduled downtime is significant, then the methods utilized for proactive maintenance likely need to be improved.

Unscheduled Downtime Losses 

Unscheduled downtime losses show how damaging unscheduled downtime is to the bottom line. Calculating this figure requires multiplying units produced per hour by profits per unit by the number of hours of unscheduled downtime over a set time span. Production managers may utilize this metric to determine the optimal amount of resources that should be allocated to limit unscheduled downtime.

Percent Reactive Maintenance 

Percent reactive maintenance is calculated by dividing the number of work hours spent on reactive maintenance by the total number of work hours. This metric shows the number of work hours lost to repairing and replacing assets. Managers should consider if those reactive maintenance work hours would be better spent on other tasks and how best to limit reactive maintenance work hours.

MTTR (Repair) 

MTTR represents the average time it takes to alert maintenance personnel of machine malfunction or failure and repair the problem. MTTR is calculated by dividing the total unplanned maintenance time by the total number of repairs. Several factors could be responsible for an unsatisfactory MTTR, including:

  • The time it takes for maintenance technicians to identify the problem
  • The time to order and receive replacement components
  • The time needed to repair the machine 

Maintenance managers attempting to improve MTTR can examine each of these factors separately and in more detail. The MTTR metric, in conjunction with data on production asset reliability, can help facilitate accurate future production capacity. The MTTR metric provides a valuable benchmark to measure facility management improvement over time.

Read our recently published

“Proactive Maintenance Best Practices” eBook: Here

MTBF 

The MTBF metric is calculated by determining the average amount of time equipment operates without a breakdown. This metric differs from MTTR by focusing primarily on equipment issues. The MTBF metric can help facility managers predict and plan for proactive component inspection or replacement. Proper utilization of MTBF by decision makers should focus on methods to maximize the time between equipment failures, such as running equipment within suggested operating specifications, performing more frequent routine maintenance, or updating components critical to equipment performance.

MTTF 

Similar to MTBF, the MTTF metric also focuses on machine issues. MTTF is the average time until equipment requires total replacement (also known as a non-repairable failure). This metric indicates when a facility may expect equipment failure. Maintenance or facility managers can prepare for these occurrences by ordering replacements before a breakdown occurs.

MTTA

MTTA is the average time from an alert of equipment failure to when work begins on that piece of equipment. This metric identifies issues with employee responsiveness to alerts and helps determine how well the alert system works. Facility managers should utilize this maintenance KPI as an indicator of their alert system and employee responsiveness.

MTTR (Recovery)

MTTR is the average time it takes to be up and running after equipment failure. This metric differs from mean time to repair because it incorporates the additional time for the facility to become fully operational. By comparing mean time to repair to mean time to recovery, facility managers can determine the amount of time needed to restart operations after machines have been repaired.

By implementing cutting-edge CMMS software, facilities can discover an easy and effective way to improve maintenance KPIs and increase operational efficiency.

How LLumin’s CMMS+ Software Can Help Improve Maintenance KPIs

One way CMMS+ software improves maintenance KPIs is by enabling predictive maintenance technology. This technology uses data and insight gained from monitoring assets to determine when maintenance, repairs, and replacements should occur.  However, LLumin CMMS+ can also automate work order creation and notification, track shipments of replacement components, manage personnel, and schedule employees with the requisite expertise to be on duty when supplies arrive. Implementing LLumin CMMS+ improves maintenance KPIs through the effective coordination of the facility. The software is easy to deploy, and your dedicated project manager will help you throughout the implementation process.

Getting Started With LLumin

LLumin develops innovative CMMS software to manage and track assets for industrial plants, municipalities, utilities, fleets, and facilities. If you’d like to learn more about the total effective equipment performance KPI, we encourage you to schedule a free demo or contact the experts at LLumin to see how our CMMS+ software can help you reach maximum productivity and efficiency goals.

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